Achieving 30x30: Percentages Matter, We’re All in This Together, and What You Do to Help Counts Big-time

Green space in the Chicago region (credit:  Chicago Wilderness Alliance ) Did you know that back in December, one of the most important planetary environmental agreements in history got approved in Montreal? This would be the “Kunming-Montreal Global Biodiversity Framework” (GBF), approved by the 15th Conference of Parties to the UN Convention on Biological Diversity, which clearly states the goal of protecting, conserving, and restoring 30% of Earth’s lands and waters by 2030. Not only was another opening created for the concept that non-human species have the right to exist and live their lives according to their kind in appropriate habitats, but indigenous peoples were included and given their due as primary keepers of land. If countries actually follow through on commitments (one of the biggest ifs) there might be a chance that biodiversity could start recovering, and we might have a chance of getting to half-earth by 2050. By providing enough habitat for 80% of species on earth, t

Do You Mulch Much?

Nature has an aversion to bare naked soil and so do I. In natural settings in Illinois, soil is generally shaded by plants and covered by organic debris (mulch) of one kind or another. Woodlands have duff, prairies have old broken stalks, and savannas have a mixture of the two—except when fire has gone through, but then there’s a layer of ash, which will quickly be shaded by fresh growth in spring or covered with snow in fall.

So in general, mulch is a good thing. But like everything else in the garden, how, where and what you use for mulch depends on circumstances. I have read many gardening manuals that suggest a blanket of two to five or even eight inches of a material such as wood chips should be applied to general garden benefit. This practice is pursued indiscriminately by homeowners and “landscapers” alike.

Bad Mulch

Everyone in the Chicago area has, at one time or another, seen a “landscaped” area consisting of a sheet of plastic or weed-barrier cloth covered by a very thick layer of mulch (possibly dyed red), with a few hostas set at impossibly far distances from each other, to gruesomely neat effect. Or, my other “favorite,” a tree, often fairly young, with a small perfect circle cut around it in the grass and filled with mulch in a neat “volcano” shape extending several inches up the trunk. How these dreadful practices achieved such wide currency I’ll never understand, but they are everywhere, an embarrassment to public and private spaces and the people who maintain them. Better, I suppose, than seeing bare ground harden, crack, erode, or rise in mini dust eddies, but still: both typical instances are not only ugly, but in the case of the tree, deleterious to garden health.
Phto from Cornell University Gardening Resources,

Plastic or synthetic weed cloth should not be used as an underlayer if at all possible: such materials directly counteract the beneficial purposes of organic mulches. Dyed wood chips have no business in a natural landscape. In addition, lava rock and river stone, while they might serve their purpose in certain situations, are a negative influence around bushes in front of houses. They serve no beneficial purpose, and as normally used, are ugly, besides. And don't get me started on recycled rubber tree ring mats. I suppose they were designed to complement the astroturf in the front yard?

Good Mulching Practice

What is good mulching practice? The short answer is that good mulching is often indistinguishable from the sheet composting described here. My general rule of thumb is to mimic, more or less, conditions in the natural plant communities that your planting area most resembles. (Standard, row-cropped vegetable gardens are a slightly different topic, since they don’t resemble natural communities.)

Shady woodland or savanna gardens often don’t need additional mulch, if you have been allowing natural duff to accumulate. I have an area under a Norway maple, reputedly one of the most difficult trees to plant under, where nothing would grow well. I trimmed the tree high. For a number of years I let duff accumulate, and added extra leaves and cut up branches. I then planted some young natives: elm-leafed goldenrod (Solidago ulmifolia), zig-zag goldenrod (Solidago flexicaulis) and bugbane (Cimicifuga racemosa). Some summer phlox (Phlox paniculata) self seeded and formed a colony, as did some Nicotiana that had grown in a pot. A few starts of periwinkle (Vinca minor) threaded their way around everything, bolstered by some virgin’s bower (Clematis virginiana) I’d planted by the fence, but which established itself on the ground as well. I took a chance on some Virginia bluebells (Mertensia virginica), with big rewards. Today that area is lush and green. Maintenance means  occasionally sprinkling some compost around and letting leaves lie where they fall. The plants thrive and multiply, and the whole is a natural extension of my more traditional perennial border. In bare-ish shady areas, say on the side of a house, perhaps where plants are just starting out, I’ll add no more than an inch of wood chips, possibly mixed with chopped leaves, on top of an inch of compost: just enough to nourish the soil and cover the ground, but not enough to invite slugs.

In the traditional perennial or mixed border, among shrubs or in vegetable gardens, a thick layer of mulch really does help prevent weeds, but again, it should used thoughtfully. Among the perennials I’ll add more in a newly planted area, to give new plants a chance to establish without interference. In my old bed, however, I use mulch sparingly, just enough to cover the dirt—the plants grow thick enough to discourage weeds on their own and I’m always trying to encourage many species to reseed themselves. Around shrubs, especially if newly planted, mulch can and should be fairly thick, but applications should be reduced as duff builds up. I also think appropriate groundcovers and small plants should be planted around and among many shrubs in most situations. Most vegetable gardeners know the value of a good thick mulch between rows, how it reduces weeds and necessary cultivation.

Prairie areas in the bright sun, with their need for warm soil temperatures and their crowded growth habits don’t need mulch at all, once established. Again, a newly planted area might need mulch, but not an established one, especially if managed by fire. I don’t use fire in my small prairie plot but during spring clean-up, scatter on a little compost and some chopped up stalks around the plants. 
Photo from Illinois Department of Natural Resources Schoolyard Habitat Program

Trees in a grassy area should be mulched all the way out to the dripline. They gain protection from mowing damage, and from over fertilization where the grass is being artificially maintained. Their roots will be naturally nurtured by the organic mulch, and won’t have to compete with the greedy turf grass. Why try to grow grass in shady areas anyway? That way only lies heartache and chemicals. Plant woodland or savanna plants instead.

All of these mulching practices help nurture the living soil and allow natural, composting processes to occur by which topsoil is replenished. These are healthy mulches. Like everything in the garden, it helps to be mindful in your practice.


Anonymous said…
Dear Adrian, In general, I am not for a mulch - not to be confused with generously feeding one's plants with good, well rotted organic matter - and certainly deplore a layer of bark through which may be seen black plastic sheeting. Municipal and horrible!

I favour close planting and then leaving the soil which, I feel, benefits from 'tickling' with a small hand fork. However, in drier climates something different may be called for.
Unknown said…
An excellent article! I'm so happy that you've challenged the conventional wisdom and provided sound advice based on science and nature. Well wriiten, as usual.

This should be mandatory reading for landscapers.

Anonymous said…
Adrian, This is the clearest and most informative discussion of mulch that I have ever read. Thank you! I'll save this so that I can come back and re-read as needed. -Jean
witchymee said…
What a great post, we do mulch, but it is from chipped trees in our area and as it decomposes it turns into really nice rich soil.
MILLIE said…
Ditto JeansGarden. Well done article. The curator of my favorite arboretum(Secrest arboretum at OARDC) has been talking to our visitors about "sustainable" mulching with a discussion similar to yours. I would love to mulch much of my tends to make the beds look so neat and tidy...but it seems only to last a season...and I have been looking for and trying to use cheaper longer lasting solutions. So Thank You for a lesson in mulching.
Sheila said…
I am forever mulching where necessary. It is an important element of gardening in our dry climate. I'm not sure how much new gardeners understand the importance of good mulching practices!
Hello all, thinks for your input. It's interesting to hear what people from different places do, since climate and soil conditions vary so widely.
Gloria Bonde said…
I love my compost piles and protect and soften my soil with organic materials. It only makes sense to mimic what nature does. I too dislike and do not use those big wood chips. This spring for my 29th wedding anniversary, I ask my husband for a load of well aged buffalo manure. What can I say, I appreciate mulch!
Jayne said…
I mulch with regular pine bark mulch (un-colored). Summers here can be brutal and anything that shades the soil and helps prevent evaporation is a plus, especially in a relatively new garden such as mine, where the plants haven't filled in yet.
Jim Groble said…
We use sweet peet only. The combination of zoo manure and leaf humos is all we need. I work in 15 yards every year. We don't top coat withany of those groung up wood or rubber products. Why would we? jim
Well-aged buffalo manure, pine bark, sweet peat! Excellent, region-specific alternatives. Thanks for stopping by.
Jean Campbell said…
I thought I responded to this post.

Anyhow, I mulch with pine straw, peanut hay, composted cotton gin trash -- all materials that grow here.
NeilJean, thanks for stopping by. Those are great options.